Christchurch City Update '97 Home Page Christchurch City Update '97

Footnotes for The City's Natural and Physical Environment


  1. Infill subdivision is when additional units are added to a section where there is an existing house.
  3. Mean Annual Rainfall is the total amount of rainfall divided by the number of years records have been collected for a particular site.
  4. Orographic influences are where hills and mountains interact with airflow often resulting in increased rainfall.
  5. Annual rainfall is the total amount of rainfall recorded for the period 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997 at each site.
  6. Return period refers to the statistical likelihood of an event occuring, eg. An event with a five year return period will occur on average once every five years.
  7. A prograding coastline is one which is accumulating additional sediment and often growing seaward. It is the opposite to an eroding shoreline.
  8. Excluding the removal of designations.
  9. Definitions and description of Land Use Capability Classes

    Class 1.

    Level, deep, easily worked well drained soils with practically no risk of erosion. The land and climate are favourable to a wide range of cultivated crops for pasture and forests.

    Class 2.

    Land with slight limitations to arable cropping. Management practices that overcome these limitations are easy to apply. Land has moderately high versatility for cropping and is also well-suited to non-arable production.

    Class 3.

    Land with moderate limitations to arable cropping. The limitations may restrict the choice of crops or require special management practices or conservation measures.

    Class 4.

    Land with severe limitations to arable cropping. The limitations restrict the choice of crops or necessitate intensive conservation treatments and very careful management. Land usually kept in pasture for long periods and only infrequently cultivated.

    Class 5.

    Land is suited for pasture and forestry, but unsuitable for cropping.

    Class 6.

    Soils are generally responsive to fertilisers. Land has moderate versatility for non-arable production.

    Class 7.

    Land has low versatility. Usually not well suited to pasture but may be well suited to plantation forestry.

    Class 8.

    Land has very low versatility for production and it will not yield significant on site benefits from harvesting of primary production using conventional technology.


  10. Canterbury Regional Council, Regional Environmental Report 1995/96
  11. Canterbury Regional Council, Christchurch Inventory of Total Emissions Report R97/7
  12. Source: Canterbury Regional Council, Regional Environmental Report 1995/96 and Canterbury Regional Council Monitoring of Carbon Monoxide on Riccarton Rd.
  13. It should be noted these areas are based on the proposed zoning in the City of Christchurch City Plan. Because an area is in a particular zone the landuse is not necessarily the same as the zoning.
  14. It is not practical to monitor water for all harmful micro-organisms. Instead the common bacteria faecal coliforms have been monitored on the assumption that were there are high concentrations of these, there is the possibility of more harmful micro-organisms. If these bacteria are present at all, water is classified as unfit for human consumption. As bacterial density increases, water is progressively classed as unfit for shellfish harvesting, contact recreation and livestock consumption.
  15. a four day average concentration of 1150 mgm-3 of ammonia at 20o C and pH 7.75. Ministry for the Environment, The State of New Zealand’s Environment Report 1997.
  16. Parks information in Table 2.11 cannot be compared with the Parks information included in Update’96 as definitions for types of park have changed, and additional parks have been included.
  17. See Christchurch City Council Parks Deficiency Study 1993
  18. Based on information in: Port Hills Birdlife: Inventory, Analysis and Restoration Potential. Report for the Parks Unit, Christchurch City Council, August 1996 by Andrew Crossland.
  19. Information in this section is based on the report for the Water Services Unit, CCC, by Andrew Crossland: The Birdlife of Christchurch’s Natural Waterways.
  20. This was the most recent period with complete records for all energy sources. Energy consumption information provided by Canterbury Regional Council and Southpower.
  21. Dwellings may use more than one form of heating, therefore the percentages will not add to 100.
  22. Full kerbside recycling was due to start in 1997, but has been delayed to 1998 while markets are developed for recycling goods. Markets are essential to ensure recycling is sustainable.
  23. Information provided by Waste Management Unit CCC.
  24. For more information contact Andrew Nichols, CCC, Waste Management Unit. Ext 8274, e-mail:
  25. Unit development falls into three major categories: units built on new site, units built on sites where a house may have been demolished or removed (ie. redevelopment) and units added to a section with an existing house (ie. infill).
  26. The City of Christchurch City Plan was notified June 24 1995.
  27. These statistics exclude building activity in Rural Villages and Rural Settlements.
  28. The major types of dwellings built in rural zones are: new homes on new or existing sites, second dwellings for family members of workers (some would be ‘granny flats’) and dwellings built to replace existing homes.
  29. The ‘Potential for development’ category refers to parcels of land greater than 4000m2, which already have a dwelling located on it.
  30. Data used in this section was provided by Southpower.
  31. As at the end of March 1997
  32. Data provided by Telecom New Zealand Limited
  33. Central City Pedestrian Activity Survey, carried out by Environmental Policy and Planning Unit, Christchurch City Council, March 1997.

Update'97 Contents Page

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Environmental Policy and Planning Unit, CCC